A Classification of Magnesium Cements

Just as describing a game as requiring a ball and something to hit it with would inadequately describe cricket, golf, hockey, polo and a large array of other sports and it would be necessary to consider the type of hitting device, how it is used, what is hit, who does the hitting, when, how and why to identify the game uniquely, it is necessary for a clear understanding of the teaching of a magnesium cement patent and to distinguish intellectual property to consider the role of various ingredients; how they will interact and the outcomes from that interaction. A reasonable way to understand and distinguishing our technology is therefore to consider the form, purpose, importance and role of the magnesia added in other patents as doing so highlights our uniquely simple yet brilliant strategy so we have developed the following classification.

To be granted a patent in most competent jursidictions it is necessary to have an invention step which for the edification of one or two players (and examiners) is not just a description in another way of something that in other patents happens anyway. The following classification of magnesium cements is provided in the hope that it helps eliminate some of the confusion and as an aid to patent examiners in relation to so called new inventions.

Level Description of Category Patent Examples
1 Cements that rely on the chemical reaction of magnesia with another component.  
1.1 Reactions causing the formation of magnesium oxychloride, magnesium oxysulfate or derivatives. (Excluded in TecEco claim 1) EP 352096A, JP59105882, JP7069706A
1.1.1 As a base with chlorides or sulfates. E.g Aluminum, magnesium, calcium, zinc or copper chloride or sulfate. JP 52‑138522a, PN SU881044-B, GA 1982-76384E, EP 352096A, US4760039, US3202520, US4572862, RU2102349 A, AU 55715/73, US 4838941, WO90/11976, GB938853, US5180429, CN1247177, RU2158718 C1, GB1160029, DE908837 C, JP57188439, US1456667, US6200381, WO9854107, RU2089525 C1, RU 2028335 C1, WO0024688, JP 57056364, WO 2009/156740 A1
1.1.2 As a base with acids. E.g. Sulfuric or hydrochloric acids CN 1071154, EP 352096A, PCT/AU96/00774, WO97/20784, US4003752, AU 55715/73, WO90/11976, GB938853, CN1247177, US1456667
1.1.3 As a base with partially substituted acids or salts containing chloride or sulfates. e.g. Reaction with calcium aluminate trisulphate, a double salt, delivering sulphate for the formation of magnesium oxy sulfate PCT/AU96/00774, WO97/20784
1.2 Chemical reaction with substances that cause carbonation. PCT/AU96/00774, WO97/20784
1.2.1 As a base with organic substances delivering CO3--.  E.g Carbonic acid. (See also 1.3.1) EP 0650940 A1, US5897703, US6200381, US5669968
1.2.2 As a base with inorganic substances delivering CO3--.  E.g. Sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate
EP 0650940 A1, AU 55715/73, GB1160029, US6200381, WO9854107, RU2089525 C1, WO 2009/156740 A1
  Carbonic acid, CO2 or a chemical that releases CO2. The CO2 which then dissolves in water forming carbonic acid. Carbonic acid will force rapid carbonation of magnesia whereby various magnesium carbonates are formed in situ.  
1.3 Chemical reaction with acidifying agents PCT/AU96/00774, WO97/20784
1.3.1 Organic acidifying agents. E.g. Citric acid, acetic acid and other carboxylic or polycarboxylic acids (such organic acidifying agents may also deliver carbonate (CO3--.) and thus fall into the category 1.2.1 above.) US 7070647B2
1.3.2 Inorganic acidifying agents. Acidifying acids may assist the dissolution and reformation of carbonate or act as accelerators or retardants depending on the mix.  
1.3.3 Neutralization of acids e.g low molecular weight organic acids from the breakdown of pectin and lignin in wood prior to use of an ingredient such as in this case wood  
1.4 Cements that include an soluble or acid phosphate and result in chemical precipitation of insoluble magnesium phosphates. US3202520, WO90/11976, US4734133, WO9206048, US 7070647B2
1.5 Chemical reaction in the form of ion exchange. The use of magnesia for ion replacement in a more soluble substance rendering the substance less soluble EP 352096A, US5194087
1.5.1 The replacement of Na+ or K+ is waterglass. E.g the replacement of Na+ or K+ in sodium or potassium silicates resulting in an insoluble precipitate of magnesium silicate. US5194087, JP 57056364
1.6 Chemical reaction as a so called  “activator” or “accelerator” Note that Mg is not a network former in geopolymeric binders as claimed rather arbitrarily by many. US6231664
1.7 Cements that rely on prior addition of magnesia to another substance resulting in chemical and physical interaction sequentially prior to the addition of other binder components JP59-083970A
1.7.1 The interaction of magnesia with schist or the waste from coal washings prior to the addition of other binders such as Portland cement WO00/05178
1.7.2 The reaction of magnesia with low molecular weight compounds e.g. wood acids prior to further additions. JP59-083970A
1.8 The reaction of substances in a binder prior to addition of the reactants to magnesia  
1.9 Chemical interaction with other salts (e.g. borax) EP 352096A, GB1160029
1.10 Interaction with some other substance US 4620947, US5897703, US6231664
2 Cements in which the main role of magnesia is in electrostatic bonding reactions. Cements that rely on the strong non-ionic, non covalent bonding of Mg++ to a negative region of a molecule. E.g. Mg++ to oxygen - similar to hydrogen bonding.  
2.1 Bonding of Mg++ to oxygen in cellullosic compounds and oxygen in water. US4011094
2.2 Bonding and complexing with water. In solution Mg++ complexes with water more readily than Ca++ forming ions of the general form [Mg(H2O)N]2+. Mg++ can also hydroxylate forming H3O+ and Mg+OH and hydrated forms of Mg+OH. These complexes greatly affect the rheology of water particularly in the presence of substances displaying strong hydrogen bonding, wherein Mg++ displays strongly kosmotrphic behaviour and is attracted to the net negative charge on oxygen. US4011094
2.3 Electrostatic and sorption bonding to activated carbon. US 4257815
3 Cements that use dead burned rather than reactive magnesia.

US 2880101, JP57095858, US 5565026, US 5228913, US 2511725

3.1 Cements that use dead burned rather than reactive magnesia to deliberately induce expansion.

US 2880101, US4002483, US4797159, US5942031, US3960580, SU104719

4 Cements that rely on the physical properties of magnesia rather than reaction. E.g. Cements that use dead burned rather than reactive magnesia to increase fire retarding properties UK871428A,
5 Cements that have a high proportion of calcium carbonate in them. (May also fall into 1.2.2 above)
When the atomic ratio of calcium to magnesium approaches one as in dolomite (or greater) As there are a large number of patents relying on partial calcination to deliver CO2 the TecEco patent excludes reactive magnesium oxide sourced from dolomite with significant remaining carbonate component.
PCT/AU96/00774, WO97/20784, RU2102349 A, AU 55715/73, KR9508585, US6200381, WO9854107, RU2089525 C1, RU 2028335 C1, US 2511725, WO 2009/156740 A1
5.1 Cements that include magnesia sourced from dolomite (as in our claim 1 exclusion (specific) or  
5.2 Cements that have been blended to include calcium carbonate. (excluded as we teach this is obviously not desirable) GB1160029
6 Cements that may include magnesia but do not include a hydraulic cement like Portland cement.
To compare TecEco technology with others purely on the constituents is misleading to say the least. It assumes that it is only necessary to know what is present in a mix and not why what is present is essential or how components react or interact with each other. To say magnesia and Portland cement are present and therefore our technology is defeated assumes a certain lack of understanding of chemistry which is insulting. What else is present matters as such other constituents will react with magnesia in a way not  required for the operation of TecEco technology.
FR890325A, EP 0650940 A1, PCT/AU96/00774, WO97/20784, US4760039, US3202520, AU 55715/73, WO90/11976, US4734133, US5897703, US5180429, GB1160029, US1456667, US6200381, WO9854107, RU2089525 C1, RU 2028335 C1, US5669968
7 Citations in which the use of magnesia is incidental and unnecessary US3260675, US4620947, US5897703, US 5565026, US 5228913
8 Citations that are often quoted that are not magnesium cements!

PN JP55032782-A, JP83025058-B, GA 1980-28374CER, US 4115138

9 Mechano or nano composites in part or completely JP 52‑138522a, CN 1071154, US4620947, PN SU881044-B, GA 1982-76384E, EP 352096A, EP 0650940 A1, PCT/AU96/00774, WO97/20784, US4760039, US3202520, JP59-083970A(?), JP59105882, JP7069706A, US4572862, RU2102349 A, AU 55715/73, WO00/05178(?), US 4838941, WO90/11976, GB938853, US5897703, US5180429, CN1247177, RU2158718 C1, KR9508585, GB1160029, DE908837 C, JP57188439, US1456667. US6200381, WO9854107, RU2089525 C1, RU 2028335 C1, WO0024688, US5669968, US6231664, US 2511725, JP 57056364, WO 2009/156740 A1

The classification is not set in concrete and constructive criticism is welcomed. Hopefully once established the system of classification will then act as a guide for patent offices and investors and there is more certainty and order and less "snake oil" in the route forward for commercialisation, particularly as magnesium carbonates have a role to play in sequestration. Please communicate any constructive criticism to TecEco and if we think you are right we will change the table.


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[1] Reactive magnesia is also variously known as caustic calcined magnesia, caustic magnesia or CCM. The temperature of firing has a greater influence on reactivity than grind size as excess energy goes into lattice energy.

Technical information about reactive magnesia is available in the technical area of our web site.

[2] Towe, K. M. and Malone and Malone, Philip G. "Precipitation of Metastable Carbonate Phases from Seawater" Nature, vol 226, April 26, 1970.

[3] Just googling the names of the authors and the word seeding will show numerous results!

[4] Marini, L. (2007). Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Amsterdam, Elsevier.